Solar panels consist of a number of solar cells with semiconductor properties, encased in a material that protects them from the surrounding environment. On either side of the semiconductors is a layer of conductive material that "collects" the electricity generated. The light-receiving side of the panel also includes an anti-reflective layer to minimize reflection losses. Most solar panels manufactured worldwide are made from crystalline silicon. Many other semiconductor materials and solar cell technologies have been developed that can operate at much higher efficiencies, but these come with higher manufacturing costs.
Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems
Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems work by converting sunlight directly into electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) cells use the photovoltaic effect to produce a voltage or current when exposed to light. PV cells come in many sizes and shapes, from smaller than a postage stamp to a few centimeters in diameter. When light shines on a PV cell, it can be reflected, absorbed or transmitted directly. It is the sunlight absorbed by these photovoltaic cells that generate the electricity. The electricity meter measures the energy passing through it and is usually used by energy companies to meter and bill customers.
Alternating current (AC)
An inverter is an electrical device that accepts current in the form of direct current (DC) and converts it to alternating current (AC). This conversion is necessary for the operation of most electrical equipment or for interfacing with the electricity network. Inverters are important for almost all solar systems and are often the most expensive component after the solar panels themselves. Most inverters have a conversion efficiency of 90% or more and include important safety features, including earth fault and islanding protection.
Circuit breakers or breakers protect
These functions shut down the PV system in the event of a power failure on the grid. The remaining components of a typical solar PV system include combiners, disconnect switches, circuit breakers, meters, and wiring. A solar coupler combines two or more wires into one larger wire. Combiners typically include fuses for protection and are used with all medium to large solar panels and utility-scale solar panels. Lyskills is an Engineering institute That provides PVSYST Training courses in Lahore Pakistan. Disconnections are electrical gates or switches that allow the manual disconnection of one electrical conductor. Circuit breakers or breakers protect electrical systems from overcurrent or overvoltage.
An off-grid solar power plant is a system with a battery bank. This type of power plant stores unused energy in the batteries that are part of the solar system. With the addition of a solar inverter, the system converts the direct current from the batteries into an alternating current.
Grid-connected systems are solar photovoltaic systems that generate electricity only when the grid is available. In order to fulfil their function, they must be connected to the network. This type of solar system automatically sends excess energy to the grid when there is excess production from the solar panels.
Hybrid solar systems generate electricity in the same way as grid-connected solar systems, but use special hybrid inverters and batteries to store energy for later use. This ability to store energy allows most hybrid systems to act as a backup power source even in the event of a power outage.