The electrical system in a building is a network of conductors and equipment designed to safely transmit, distribute and transform electrical energy from the point of supply or generation to the various loads in the building that consume electricity. Lyskills provides Electrical building design training courses in Lahore. The vast majority of electrical systems used in UK buildings operate at 230 V single-phase alternating current (AC) or 400 V three-phase 50 Hz. These networks are often referred to as Low Voltage (LV) networks.
This system is also known as the electricity grid. Larger installations may operate at higher voltages, often with 11 kV power supplies or feeders installed at the start of the installation. These networks are called high voltage (HV) networks. The conversion of electricity from the 11 kV grid to the 230 V to 400 V range is usually carried out by transformers in the substation. The conductors that make up the electrical system are the means by which electricity is transferred from one place to another. Conductors are usually made of copper, which provides a good balance between electrical conductivity and cost.
In some cases, aluminum may also be used. Conductors are usually insulated with PVC or other synthetic insulating materials. Most conductors are used as electrical cables. They can be laid individually or in closed systems between two points in the electrical system. Other conductors commonly used in building electrical systems are bus bars. These are usually copper or aluminum conductors that are routed in an insulating and protective housing, usually a conduit. They can be used where larger conductors are required, as the bus duct is often physically smaller than cables of equivalent current carrying capacity.
Such bus ducts are usually of a fixed length and may have several branch points at which the wires can be branched or forked. In addition to the conductors, the electrical system will also include equipment to provide switching and protection capabilities, known as switchgear. Switchgear allows manual or automatic control of current flow. Manual control relies on human intervention for smooth operation and is typically used for switching insulation and switching functions.
Automatic switching may be based on the protective features of the equipment, which detect overcurrent and act to prevent damage to the wiring that could cause fire and/or electric shock. This is usually achieved by means of automatic switches and/or fuses. Automatic switching can also be carried out by control systems where electrical signals from other systems are used to control devices called relays or contactors, which in turn control higher power circuits.
The final components of an electrical system are called load devices. They convert electricity into other forms of energy such as heat, light, or motion. Common elements such as luminaires (lamps), motors, electric heating devices, as well as power converters, convert mains electricity to a lower voltage in order to operate appliances and Electronic devices. Often, this energy conversion is carried out in the appliance or load itself.